PSPR - 

    Power System Planning And Reliability MCQ


    1) Operations generated forecasts often not to do with

    a. Inventory requirements

    b. Resource needs

    c. Time Requirements

    d. Sales


    2) Which of the following is not true for forecasting?

    a. Forecasts are rarely perfect

    b. The underlying casual system will remain same in the future

    c. Forecast for group of items is accurate than individual item

    d. Short range forecasts are less accurate than long range forecasts


    3) Which of the following is not a forecasting technique?

    a. Judgemental

    b. Time series 

    c. Time horizon

    d. Associative


    4) In which of the following forecasting technique, subjective inputs obtained from various sources are analyzed?

    a. Judgemental forecast

    b. Time series forecast

    c. Associative model

    d. All of the above


    5) In which of the following forecasting technique, data obtained from past experience is analyzed?

    a. Judgemental forecast 

    b. Time series forecast

    c. Associative model

    d. All of the above


    6) Delphi method is used for

    a. Judgemental forecast

    b. Time series forecast

    c. Associative model

    d. All of the above


    7) Short term regular variations related to the calendar or time of day is known as

    a. Trend

    b. Seasonality

    c. Cycles

    d. Random Variations


    8) The demand for period t-2 and t-1 is 10 and 12 cases respectively. As per naïve method, the demand for next period ‘t’ is

    a. 10

    b. 11

    c. 12

    d. 14 


    9) Calculate four periods moving average forecast from the last six periods



    a. 40

    b. 41

    c. 42

    d. 43


    10) Calculate a weighted average forecast using a weight of .50 to the most recent period, .40 for the next recent period and .30 for the next period



    a. 46.6

    b. 47.6

    c. 48.6

    d. 49.6


    11) A linear trend equation has the form

    a. F = a - bt

    b. F = a + bt

    c. F = 2a - bt

    d. F = 2a + bt


    12) If the actual demand for a period is 100 units but forecast demand was 90 units. The forecast error is 

    a. -10

    b. +10

    c. -5

    d. +5


    13) The load forecasting is method to predict _______.

    a. Past loads

    b. Present loads

    c. Future loads

    d. None of these


    14) The load forecasting  methods give ___________ values.

    a. Precise

    b. Accurate 

    c. Not accurate

    d. None of these


    15) Depending upon chosen time period of study load forecasting maybe classified as _______

    a. Short term 

    b. Medium term

    c. Long term 

    d. All of these


    16) Loads are classified into ______

    a. Residential load

    b. Commercial load

    c. Industrial load

    d. Other loads

    e. All of these


    17)  Factors affecting load forecasting are ______

    a. Weather condition

    b. Time factors

    c. Special events

    d. Class of customers

    e. All of these


    18) The load having less time period with larger variations is called __________

    a. Residential load

    b. Commercial load

    c. Industrial load

    d. Other loads


    19) The load which occur for larger period as compared to the residential load is called_________

    a. Residential load

    b. Commercial load

    c. Industrial load

    d. Other loads


    20) Which load having constant power demand____________.

    a. Residential load

    b. Commercial load

    c. Industrial load

    d. Other loads


    21) The municipal loads, railway loads, traffic and government loads is come under category of __________.

    a. Residential load

    b. Commercial load

    c. Industrial load

    d. Other loads


    22) ___________ is calculation of future load consumption based on various historical data and information available as per consumer pattern.

    a. CUSUM

    b. Load forecasting

    c. Markov method

    d. Bath tub method


    23) The load curve describe_____

    a. Generation with respect to load

    b. Variation of load with respect to time

    c. Generation with respect to time

    d.  None of above


    24) Load forecasting is nothing but to estimate

    a. Deterministic part

    b. Stochastic part

    c. Both a and b

    d.  None of the above


    25) In Load forecasting, The present and lead time is represented by

    a. σ,j

    b.  Π,k

    c. Χ, l

    d.  None of the above


    26) Load forecasting method are

    a.  Extrapolation

    b.  Correlation

    c.  Combination of a and b

    d.  All of the above


    27) The extrapolation method is based on the

    a. Curve fitting to present data

    b. Extrapolation of past data

    c. Extrapolation of present data

    d.Curve fitting to previous data available 


    28) Match standard analytical with its equation

     i. Straight line        A.α+βσ+γσ23 

    ii. Parabolic            B.α+βσ+γσ2 

    iii. S-curve             C. α+βσ 

    iv. exponential       D.γΕσ 

    v. Gempertz           E. ln-1


    a. i-A, ii-B, iii-C, iv-D, v-E

    b.  i-C, ii-B, iii-A, iv-D, v-E

    c.  i-A, ii-B, iii-D, iv-C, v-E

    d.  i-D, ii-B, iii-A, iv-C, v-E


    29) Which of the following method is generally adapted for curve fitting

    a.  Weighted least square

    b.  Extrapolation least square

    c.  Least square

    d.  None of above


    30) Which of the following techniques is the basic for extrapolation?

    a. Square extrapolation

    b. Parabolic extrapolation

    c. Exponential extrapolation

    d. None of the above


    31) The correlation technique relates system load to

    a.  Various demographic factors

    b.  Economic factors

    c. Both a and b

    d.  None of the above


    32) What is the disadvantage of correlation methods?

    a.  Required more past data for analysis

    b.  Required more data space

    c. Less accuracy

    d. Load forecasting for demographic and economic factors is difficult


    33) Which of the following is the simplest form of stochastic time series model?

    a. Generalize load modelling

    b.  Estimation of periodic components

    c. Time Estimation

    d. Auto-regressive model


    34) Kalman filtering algorithm is widely used for

    a.  Short term or very short term load forecasting

    b.  Long term load forecasting

    c.  Medium load forecasting

    d.  Very long term load forecasting


    35) Limitation of Kalman and prediction techniques

    a. Required large time to estimate

    b.  Depends on availability of required state variable model of the load data which is not available at starting

    c. Require more space to data storage

    d.  All of above


    36) Which of the following approaches is utilized to overcome the limitation of kalman and prediction method?

    a.  Time series

    b.  Average and tread term

    c.  Innovation model

    d.  None of the above


    37) Which among the below mentioned types of redundancy exhibits maximum failure rate?

    a. Cold standby

    b. Warm or Tepid

    c. Hot or Active 

    d. All of the above


    38) Which among the following exhibits inversely proportional relationship with the reliability?

    a. Production cost

    b. Design and development cost

    c. Maintenance and repair cost 

    d. All of the above


    39) What is the failure cost of a product possessing reliability R=1?

    a. Zero

    b. Unity

    c. Infinity

    d. None of the above


    40) What is /are the major purpose/s of using a bath tub curve?

    a. To determine the capital maintenance in defense equipments.

    b. To compute lifts in the distillation column

    c. To decide the maintenance of equipment

    d. All of the above


    41) Which method prevents the operating condition that exceeds beyond 50% of the maximum rating in order to improve the system reliability?

    a. Parts Improvement Method

    b. Structural Redundancy

    c. Effective & creative Design

    d. Derating of components


    42) Which type of availability deals with the probability of system operation and functioning at the requisite level in an ideal environment without any consideration of maintenance?

    a. Inherent availability

    b. Achieved availability

    c. Operational availability

    d. None of the above


    43) What would be the composite failure rate of a system comprising one VLSI microprocessor with 6 SSI ICs  and 10 resistors corresponding to the data given below?

    Assume a single board system

    PCB 2000 FIT

    SSIC 70 FIT

    R  20 FIT

    VLSI microprocessor 600 FIT

    a. 1250 FIT

    b. 2400 FIT

    c. 3220 FIT

    d. 4520 FIT


    44) What would happen, if an equipment possesses reliability and maintainability to the maximum extent in accordance to MTTR?

    a. Failure rate is higher & downtime is longer

    b. Failure rate is lower & downtime is longer

    c. Failure rate is higher & downtime is shorter

    d. Failure rate is lower & downtime is shorter


    45) On which factors does the down-time of an equipment at the maintainability phase, depends

    a. Design

    b. Installation

    c. Both a & b

    d. None of the above


    46) How is the reliability of a product specified?

    a. Always less than 1

    b. Always greater than 1

    c. Always equal to 1

    d. None of the above


    47) Which type of maintenance is associated or concerned with an elimination of failures during the operational level of an equipment?

    a. Preventive

    b. Predictive

    c. Breakdown

    d. Capital


    48) Which among the below mentioned parameters is/are associated with the quality of a device

    a. Time & environmental conditions

    b. Numerical value

    c. Manufacturing of unit

    d. All of the above


    49) According to exponential law of reliability, the relationship between the reliability and the system failure due to consistency in occurrence of failure rate, can be generally expressed as _________

    a. R = λt

    b. R = -λt

    c. R = e λt

    d. R = e- λt 


    50) Which type of failures occur due to some major reason by terminating the functioning level for a long duration of time?

    a. Initial failures

    b. Early failures

    c. Wear out failures

    d. Catastrophic failures


    51) Which stage of life-cycle associated with an electronic instrument plays a vital role in establishing a target figure for reliability in terms of specifications?

    a. Design

    b. Production

    c. Storage & Transport

    d. Operation


    52. The Bathtub curve indicates failure probability, Which stage is NOT normally associated with the bathtub curve?_________

    a. Normal-life where few failures occur

    b. Wear-out where failure increases due to age

    c. Infant-mortality where failures occur early

    d. Pulling the plug where production is halted due to unacceptable level of failures


    53. Failure occurs due to defective parts during the_________.

    a. Wear out stage

    b. Normal life stage

    c. Early life stage


    54. What refers to wear out failure_________.

    a. Increasing failure rate

    b. Decreasing failure rate

    c. Depends upon type of the experiment

    d. Depends upon the subject


    55. What is /are the major purpose/s of using a bath tub curve?

    a. To determine the capital maintenance in defense equipments

    b. To compute lifts in the distillation column

    c. To decide the maintenance of equipment

    d. All of the above 


    56. What is the failure cost of a product possessing reliability R=1?

    a. Zero

    b. Unity

    c. Infinity

    d. None of the above


    57Which among the following exhibits inversely proportional relationship with the reliability?

    a. Production cost

    b. Design and development cost

    c. Maintenance and repair cost

    d. All of the above


    58. Which among the below mentioned types of redundancy exhibits maximum failure rate?

    a. Cold standby

    b. Warm or Tepid

    c. Hot or Active

    d. All of the above


    59. Which of the following is not a phase of  bath tub curve of hardware reliability?

    a. Useful life

    b. wear out

    c. Time

    d. Burn-in


    60. What is bath tub curve stands for?

    a. maintenance schedule

    b. failure rate

    c. vibration chart

    d. viscosity chart


    61. Which one of the following relationships is incorrect?

    ANS: f(t) = -dF(t)/ dt


    62. Which of the following is not considered a reliability design method________.

    a. Parts selection

    b. Derating

    c. Accessibility

    d. Choice of technology


    63. The probability density function of a Markov process is___________.

    a. p(x1,x2,x3.......xn) = p(x1)p(x2/x1)p(x3/x2).......p(xn/xn-1)

    b. p(x1,x2,x3.......xn) = p(x1)p(x1/x2)p(x2/x3).......p(xn-1/xn)

    c. p(x1,x2,x3......xn) = p(x1)p(x2)p(x3).......p(xn)

    d. p(x1,x2,x3......xn) = p(x1)p(x2 *x1)p(x3*x2)........p(xn*xn-1)


    64. Markov analysis is a technique that deals with the probabilities of future occurrences by__________.

    a. Using Bayes' theorem

    b. Analyzing presently known probabilities

    c. Time series forecasting

    d. The maximal flow technique


    65. How is reliability and failure intensity related to each other?

    a. Direct relation

    b. Inverse relation

    c. No relation

    d. None of the mentioned


    66. What is MTTF ?

    a. Maximum time to failure

    b. Mean time to failure

    c. Minimum time to failure

    d. None of the mentioned


    67. What is MTTR  ?

    a.  Mean Time To Restore

    b.  Mean Time To Repair

    c.  Mean Time To Recovery

    d.  Mean Time to Restoration


    68. Measure of reliability is given by ______ .

    a. Mean Time between success

    b. Mean reliable

    c. Mean Time between failure (MTBF)

    d. MTTR


    69. Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) is the time needed to repair a failed equipment/component.

    a. True

    b. False

    c. Can't say

    d. None 


    70. Which one of the below is measured by MTBF?

    a. Tolerance

    b. Life time

    c. Reliability

    d. Quality


    71. What is the area under a conditional Cumulative density function ?

    a. 0

    b. Infinity

    c. 1

    d. Changes with CDF


    72. Reliability is a measure of the result of the quality of the product over ________.

    a. the short run

    b. the long run

    c. the medium run

    d. the moderate run


    73. What is the failure cost of a product possessing reliability R=1?

    a. Zero

    b. Unity

    c. Infinity

    d. None of the above


    74. What is MTTF ?

    a. Maximum time to failure

    b. Mean time to failure

    c. Minimum time to failure

    d. None of the mentioned


    75. If two systems are connected in series with reliabilities are 1 and 0.9 then total reliability_______.

    a. 0.91

    b. 1.9

    c. 0.9

    d. 0.95

    Explanation : 

    SERIES System :

    When components are in series and each component has a reliability RIf one component fails, the system fails.

    Series system reliability
    Series system reliability

    1. The overall reliability of a series system shown above is :

    2. R AB = R1 x R2 x R3

    3. If R1 = R2 = R3 = 0.95

    4. RAB = R1 x R2 x R3 = 0.95 x 0.95 x 0.95 = 0.86

    5. R total is always < than R1 or R2 or R3


    76. Which one of the below is measured by MTBF_______.

    a. Tolerance

    b. Life time

    c. Reliability

    d. Quality


    77. What are the units of LOLE________.

    a. week/days

    b. days/year

    c. year/week

    d. week/year


    78. The Bathtub curve indicates failure probability, Which stage is NOT normally associated with the bathtub curve?

    a. Normal-life where few failures occur

    b. Wear-out where failure increases due to age

    c. Infant-mortality where failures occur early

    d. Pulling the plug where production is halted due to unacceptable level of failures


    79. What is the area under a conditional Cumulative density function ?

    a. 0

    b. Infinity

    c. 1

    d. Changes with CDF


    80. Markov analysis is a technique that deals with the probabilities of future occurrences by__________.

    a. Using Bayes' theorem

    b. Analyzing presently known probabilities

    c. Time series forecasting

    d. The maximal flow technique


    81. Unreliability of the system represents with_______.

    a. p

    b. q

    c. r

    d. s


    82. A transmission and distribution engineer needed to design the sub transmission substation. The tapping component needed is______.

    a. Feeder

    b. Distributor

    c. Transmitter

    d. Tap-changing transformer


    83. Electric power is transferred from one location to another location by________.

    a. Overhead line

    b. Underground line

    c. Both a and b

    d. None of above


    84. Value of A parameter of transmission line______.

    a. Increases with increase in length of line

    b. Decreases with increase in line length

    c. Independent of line length

    d. None of the above


    85. The advantage of neutral earthing is _______.

    a. Freedom from persistent arcing grounds

    b. Over voltages due to lightning can be discharged to earth

    c. Simplified design earth fault protection 

    d. All of the above


    86. Grounding transformer is used where neutral_____ available.

    a. Is

    b. Is not

    c. Any of above

    d. None of above



    87)

    According to  Nature of load is classified as

    a

    Resistive load

    b

    Inductive load

    c

    Capacitive load

    d

    Industrial load

    88)

    Load Factor of power station is generally

    a

    equal to unity

    b

    Less than unity

    c

    More than unity

    d

    Equal to zero diversity factor is always

    89)

    Which of the following is the essential requirement of peak load plant ?

    a

    It should run at high speed

    b

    It should produce high voltage

    c

    It should be small in size

    d

    It should be capable of starting quickly

    90)

    Very Short term foresacting is used for ?

    a

    Improvement of transmission and distribution systems

    b

    Allocation of spinning reserve

    c

    Development of small generation schemes

    d

    Fuel Requirement

    91)

    what is time period of short term forecasting?

    a

    one day to one week

    b

    one day to two weeks

    c

    one day to 4 weeks

    d

    one day to 6 weeks

    92)

    What is need of load forcasting ?

    a

    To understand  Energy Dificiency

    b

    To undetsand consumer intrest

    c

    To calculate load on power plant

    d

    To calculate total load connected

    93)

    Relation between the load and temperature is  ?

    a

    Non-linear

    b

    Linear

    c

    Regressive

    d

    Uniform

    94)

    Which of the following load is occurs for short period ?

    a

    Industrial load

    b

    Commercial load

    c

    Residential load

    d

    Agricultural load

    95)

    To find weather load model we need ______

    a

    Temprature

    b

    Historial Data

    c

    Time Period

    d

    Weather data

    96)

    Which of the following parameter does not come under random factor ?

    a

    School Hoilidays

    b

    Rainy Seasons

    c

    Weather

    d

    Temperature

    97)

    Which of following factor affects capacity of substation ?

    a

    Economic growth

    b

    Density of load

    c

    Tariff

    d

    Season

    98)

    Which of the following method used in 2020 for  load forecasting ?

    a

    Univariate Model

    b

    Semi- parameter Additive Method

    c

    Expert system Method

    d

    Artificial Neutral network Model

    99)

    If r = 1 , then its called ________

    a

    Perfect linear Correlation

    b

    Perfect Negative  Correlation

    c

    Perfect  Non-linear Correlation

    d

    No  Correlation

    100)

    If  0 < r <1 , then its called ________

    a

    Perfect  Correlation

    b

     Negative  Correlation

    c

     Non-linear Correlation

    d

    Positive   Correlation

    101)

    Which of the following method is used for Peak Load Forecasting ?

    a

    Extrapolation Method

    b

    Trend Projection Method

    c

    Expert system Method

    d

    Artificial Neutral Network Model Method

    102)

    Average power is also called?

    a

    apparent power

    b

    reactive power

    c

    true power

    d

    instantaneous power

    103)

     The power factor=?

    a

    sinθ

    b

    cosθ

    c

    tanθ

    d

    cotθ

    104)

    The term lagging power factor is used in which circuits?

    a

    RLC

    b

    RC

    c

    RL

    d

    LC

    105)

    The change in reactive power Q produces large effect on receiving end voltage because

    a

    The voltage drop associated with this change is in phase with reference voltage

    b

    The voltage drop associated with this change is in quadrature with reference voltage

    c

     The voltage drop associated with this change has no relation with reference voltage

    d

    The voltage drop associated with this change is in phase with reference Current

    106)

    availability of adequate spinning reserve is made in

    a

    Long term planning

    b

    short term planning

    c

    outage term planning

    d

    medium term planning



    107)

    short fall of existing system is located in

    a

    Long term planning

    b

    short term planning

    c

    outage term planning

    d

    medium term planning

    108)

    planning for co-generation for reactive power support is made in

    a

    Long term planning

    b

    short term planning

    c

    outage term planning

    d

    medium term planning

    109)

    development of fuel contracts is made in

    a

    Long term planning

    b

    short term planning

    c

    outage term planning

    d

    medium term planning

    110)

    improvement of power factor can be made with the help of

    a

    average power planning

    b

    reactive power planning

    c

    real power planning

    d

    apparent power planning

    111)

    increase in power transfer capabilities of existing network can carried out with the help of

    a

    average power planning

    b

    reactive power planning

    c

    real power planning

    d

    apparent power planning

    112)

    Load flow studies are carried out for

    a

    fault calcualation

    b

    stabiloty studies

    c

    system planning

    d

    frequency control

    113)

    Daily load curve is diveded into how many parts

    a

    1

    b

    2

    c

    3

    d

    4

    114)

    If ‘X’ is a random variable, taking values ‘x’, probability of success and failure being ‘p’ and ‘q’ respectively and ‘n’ trials being conducted, then what is the probability that ‘X’ takes values ‘x’? Use Binomial Distribution

    a

    P(X = x) = nCx px qx

    b

    P(X = x) = nCx px q(n-x)

    c

    P(X = x) = xCn qx p(n-x)

    d

    P(x = x) = xCn pn qx

    115)

    Reliability,R(t) is generally a decreasing function between the limits….

    a

    of 1 and 0.5

    b

    of 0 and 0.5

    c

    of 0.5 and 1

    d

    of 1 and 0

    116)

    Weibull distribution expression λ(t) = K t β-1        for     t> 0, If β >1 represents

    a

    failure rate decreases  with time- wear out stage

    b

    failure rate increases with time- wear out stage

    c

    failure rate constant -  useful life period

    d

    failure rate decreases with time- debugging region

    117)

    Let Ns(t)= number surviving at time t and Nf(t)= number failed at time t from total No components,then the probability of failure is define as

    a

    1-Ns(t)/No

    b

    Nf(t)/No

    c

    Ns(t)/No

    d

    1- (Nf(t)/No)

    118)

    probability density function is define as

    a

    dQ(t)/dt

    b

    -dQ(t)/dt

    c

    dR(t)/dt

    d

    -dR(t)/dt

    119)

    A parallel system has 10 identical components. If the overall system reliability must be at least 0.99, how poor can these components be?

    a

    0.134

    b

    0.234

    c

    0.396

    d

    0.652

    120)

    Weibull distribution expression λ(t) = K t β-1     for     t> 0, for wear out stage value of  β is

    a

    β >1

    b

    β =1

    c

    0< β <1

    d

     β <1

    121)

    Weibull distribution expression λ(t) = K t β-1     for     t> 0, for useful life period value of  β is

    a

    β >1

    b

    β =1

    c

    0< β <1

    d

     β <1

    122)

    Weibull distribution expression λ(t) = K t β-1     for     t> 0, for time- debugging region value of  β is

    a

    β >1

    b

    β =1

    c

    0< β <1

    d

     β <1

    123)

    If x is a continuous random variable with a probability density function f(x). The epected value E(x) is given by




    b

    c

    d


     

    124)

    The system consisting a single component having failure rate 1X10-6 f/hr, evaluate the probability of surviving for a period og 5000hr

    a

    0.8899

    b

    0.9981

    c

    0.995

    d

    0.9985

    125)

    The system is forming 4 tieset ,the system probability is given by the equation

    a

    Rs = P(T1)UP(T2)UP(T3)UP(T4)

    b

    Rs = P(T1UT2UT3UT4)

    c

    Rs = P(T1UT2)UP(T3UT4)

    d

    Rs = P(T1UT2UT3)UP(T4)

    126)

    The system is forming 4 cutset ,the system unrelaibility is given by the equation

    a

    Qs = P(C1UC2UC3UC4)

    b

    Qs = P(C1)UP(C2)UP(C3)Up(C4)

    c

    Qs = P(C1UC2)UP(C3UC4)

    d

    Qs = P(C1UC2UC3)UPC4)

    127)

    Unit of LOLE is

    a

    days/year

    b

    year/days

    c

    days

    d

    years

    128)

    Inversion of LOLE is often misinterpreted as

    a

    Duration Index

    b

    Time Index

    c

    Generation Index

    d

    Frequency Index

    129)

    Frequency and Duration Method

    a

    Requires Less Data than Basic Methods

    b

    Requires Additional Data than Basic Methods

    c

    Requires same data as Basic Methods

    d

    Requires no data

    130)

    The LOLE method for calculation uses steady state availability and unavailability for which of the following model

    a

    Markov Model

    b

    Two state model

    c

    Weather Model

    d

    Load Model

    131)

    Which of the following is not a proper classification based on time scale for Generaation Planning

    a

    One Year Ahead

    b

    Two Year Ahead

    c

    Five Year Ahead

    d

    Ten Year Ahead

    132)

    Which of the following is not a factor affecting monthly planning

    a

    Scheduling of generator unit planned outages

    b

    Scheduling of transmission unit planned outages

    c

    Two Year System Operation

    d

    Transient Security Assesment

    133)

    Which of the following is not a factor affecting  yearly planning

    a

    Two Year System Operation

    b

    Five Year System Operation

    c

    Grid System Performance Report

    d

    Scheduling of unit commitment

    134)

    In a four state model two state model is represented by

    a

    states 0 and 1

    b

    states 1 and 2

    c

    states 2 and 3

    d

    states 0 and 3

    135)

    In a four state mode failure to start condition is represented bythe transition rate

    a

    states 0 to 1

    b

    states 1 to 2

    c

    states 2 to 3

    d

    states 0 to 3

    136)

    Overall probability that load demand will not met is called

    a

    LOLP

    b

    LOLE

    c

    LOEE

    d

    LOEP

    137)

    Formula for EIR=

    a

    1-LOLP

    b

    1-LOEE

    c

    1-LOEP

    d

    1-LOLE

    138)

    Study Period for LOLE study in days is

    a

    355

    b

    360

    c

    365

    d

    370

    139)

    The LOLE is 0.25104 days for the 20-day period. If the year is assumed to be composed of a series of such periods, the annual LOLE in days/year is

    a

    4.55

    b

    4.56

    c

    4.57

    d

    4.58

    140)

    A single repairable generating unit capacity =20 MW. Availability =0.98, mean time to repair r=2.010816 days. Total Operating Period is

    a

    100 days

    b

    101 days

    c

    102 days

    d

    103 days

    141)

    After commisioning new unit the Total System Capacity

    a

    Stops

    b

    Decreses

    c

    Increases

    d

    Remains Same

    142)

    If summation of LOLP =0.40652 then LOLE for 100% time represented by 365 days is

    a

    1.38

    b

    1.48

    c

    1.58

    d

    1.68

    143)

    For Modified PJM method 1) it extends the basic concepts 2) allows the inclusion of rapid start units and other additional generating plant having different individual lead times.

    a

    1 is correct

    b

    2 is correct

    c

    1 is correct but 2 is incorrect

    d

    2 is correct 1 is incorrect

    144)

    Is there any conceptual limit to the number of intervals which can be used in practice ?

    a

    Yes limit is there

    b

    Yes limit is there but not on stand by modes

    c

    No limit but each unit on standby mode cannot be associated with its own lead time.

    d

    No limit and each unit on standby mode can be associated with its own lead time.

    145)

    Too many intervals leads to 

    a

    wrong calculations

    b

    excessive usage of hardware

    c

    excessive computation

    d

    More protective units

    146)

    Lead time for eaich
    group for rapid start and hot reserve
    units 

    a

    typically may be 25 minutes and 5 hour  respectively

    b

    typically may be 5 hour  and 25 minutes respectively

    c

    typically may be 1 hour  and 10 minutes respectively

    d

    typically may be 10 minutes and 1 hour  respectively

    147)

    The risk is reduced most significantly by the addition of the gas turbines and these have a greater effect than the hot reserve units.

    a

    Because gas turbines can be started more quickly comparatively

    b

    Because these units are able to affect the risk level over a much longer time period than the hot reserve units.

    c

    Because gas turbines  have less stand by losses

    d

    Because gas turbines are capable of using a range of liquid and gaseous fuels including synthetic fuels.

    148)

    Unit which fails during
    operation must be removed immediately from service.

    a

    Usually an acceptable
    concept in planning studies but becomes less acceptable in operational reserve
    evaluation.

    b

    Usually acceptable
    concept in planning studies and operational reserve
    evaluation.

    c

    Not acceptable in planning studies but acceptable in operational reserve
    evaluation.

    d

    Not acceptable in both  planning studies and operational reserve
    evaluation.

    149)

    The removal of the unit for repair can be delayed or postponed for up to ……. Hour/s or more.

    a

    Half

    b

    1

    c

    5

    d

    24

    150)

    Pump storage systems generally have…………...  probability of failing to start.

    a

    very reasonable

    b

    moderately high

    c

    very
    high

    d

    very
    low

    151)

    If all unit failures could be postponed ,

    a

    capacity outages would
    not contribute to the operational risk and spinning reserve would only be required
    to compensate for load forecast uncertainties.

    b

    capacity outages would
    contribute to the operational risk and also spinning reserve would be required
    to compensate for load forecast uncertainties.

    c

    Neither capacity outages would
    contribute to the operational risk nor spinning reserve would  be required
    to compensate for load forecast uncertainties.

    d

    This is practically not possible

    152)

    Rapid start units such as gas
    turbines and pumped storage systems

    a

    can respond extremely quickly from standstill , decrease the response risk,  increase the response magnitude

    b

    can respond extremely quickly from standstill but increase the response risk

    c

    can respond extremely quickly from
    standstill but decrease the response magnitude

    d

    can respond not very quickly from standstill , decrease the response risk,  increase the response magnitude

    153)

    What is full form of MORR?

    a

    Modified outage replacement rate

    b

    Maryland Opioid Recovery Response

    c

    Movement Overspeed Resistance Reaction

    d

    Multi Overhead Reduction Ratio.

    154)

    1) Hydro units are very useful as spinning reserve units                         2) Hydro units are cheaper to operate than thermai units

    a

    1 is correct

    b

    2 is correct

    c

    Both 1 & 2 are correct

    d

    2 is correct 1 is incorrect

    155)

    1)the risk decreases as the number of failures which can be postponed increases. 2) less spinning reserve needs to be carried in order to achieve a given level of risk.

    a

    1 and 2 are true and related

    b

    1 and 2 are true but not related

    c

    1 and 2 are false and not related

    d

    1 is true but 2 is false

    156)

    The short response time of
    spinning reserve units represents

    a

     the amount of time a storage technology can maintain its output.

    b

    the period in which the units must respond in order
    to eliminate the need to take other emergency measures such as disconnecting load.

    c

    a change in the power consumption of an electric utility customer to better match the demand for power with the supply.

    d

     the period in which sufficient capacity
    must respond in order to protect system frequency and tie-line regulation.

    157)

    The longer response time represents

    a

     the period in which sufficient capacity
    must respond in order to protect system frequency and tie-line regulation.

    b

    period to adjust the demand for power instead of adjusting the supply.

    c

    with the capability to absorb and supply electrical energy for long periods of time

    d

    the period in which the units must respond in order
    to eliminate the need to take other emergency measures such as disconnecting load.

    158)

    Hydro units can usually respond to changes ………………….. than conventional thermal units.

    a

    much more rapidly

    b

    slowly

    c

    at same rate as

    d

    invalid comparison

    159)

    the response rate may vary from about ………….of full capacity per minute for hydro-electric plant to only …………...of full capacity per minute for some types of thermal
    plant.

    a

    30%, 1%

    b

    90%, 50%

    c

    50%, 90%

    d

    1%,30%

    160)

    in practice, units usually have a  ……………...response rate.

    a

    linear

    b

    non-linear

    c

    differential

    d

    integral

    161)

    Types of rapid start units such as gas turbines can usually reach full output within ……….minutes from standstill.

    a

    60

    b

    5

    c

    120

    d

    1

    162)

    1) The essence of allocating spinning reserve between units is  to decide which of the committed units should be dispatched and which should be held as reserve. These decisions can be assisted by evaluating the probability of achieving a certain response or regulating margin within the required response time. This assessment is known as

    a

    Risk Impact Assessment

    b

    Plan Risk Response

    c

    Response Risk Evaluation

    d

    Risk Impact Mitigation

    163)

    A transmission and distribution engineer needed to design the sub transmission substation. The tapping component needed is

    a

    Feeder

    b

    Distributor

    c

    Transmitter

    d

    Tap-changing transformer

    164)

      Which of these systems uses the 3 phase 4 wire system?

    a

    Primary distribution

    b

    Secondary distribution

    c

    Primary transmission

    d

    Secondary transmission

    165)

    Which type of system is generally adopted for the generation and transmission of electrical power?

    a

    3 phase 4 wire

    b

    2 phase 3 wire

    c

    3 phase 3 wire

    d

    2 phase 4 wire

    166)

       Which is an example of non-conventional energy souces?

    a

    coal

    b

     petroleum

    c

    gas

    d

    solar

    167)

    Out of the following which one is not a unconventional source of energy ?

    a

    Tidal power

    b

    Geothermal energy

    c

    Nuclear energy

    d

    Wind power.

    168)

    Name the cable or conductor which connects the distributor to the consumer terminals.

    a

    Service Mains

    b

    Distributor

    c

     Feeders

    d

    Both feeder and distributor

    169)

    The voltage of the single-phase supply to residential consumers is

    a

    110 V

    b

    230 V

    c

    440 V

    d

    320 V

    170)

    In transmission lines, the cross-arms are made of

    a

    Steel

    b

    Wood

    c

    R.C.C

    d

    Either Steel or Wood

    171)

    LOLE stands for

    a

    Loss of Line Expectation

    b

    Line of Loss Energy

    c

    Loss of Load Expectation

    d

    Loss of Load Energy

    172)

    LOEE stands for

    a

    Loss of Energy Expectation

    b

    Loss of Expectation Energy

    c

    Loss of load Expectation

    d

    Loss of Electrical Energy

    173)

    The generating voltage and frequency in India is about?

    a

     11 kV and 60 Hz

    b

    11 kV and 50 Hz

    c

    220 kV and 60 Hz

    d

    220 kV and 50 Hz

    174)

    What is the highest possible transmission voltage in India?

    a

     675 kV

    b

    765 kV

    c

    132 kV

    d

    400 kV

    175)

    Which of the following materials are not used for the transmission and distribution of electrical power?

    a

     Copper

    b

     Aluminum

    c

    Tungsten

    d

    Steel

    176)

    The distribution constant of the transmission line is

    a

    Resistance

    b

    Inductance

    c

    Capacitance

    d

    Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance, Conductance

    177)

    Transformer connection at the sending end of a transmission line is usually

    a

    Star-delta

    b

    Delta-delta

    c

    Delta-star

    d

    Star-star

    178)

    In short overhead transmission line (upto 80 km), we may neglect

    a

    Series resistance

    b

    Shunt conductance

    c

    Shunt capacitance

    d

    Both shunt conductance and capacitance

    179)

    The EHV system in one operating beyond

    a

    11 kV

    b

    132 kV

    c

    200 kV

    d

    400 kV

    180)

     __________ is invariably used as base load plant.

    a

    Diesel engine plant

    b

    Nuclear power plant

    c

    Gas turbine plant

    d

    Pumped storage plant

    181)

     During load shedding

    a

    system power factor is changed

    b

    some loads are switched off

    c

    system voltage is reduced

    d

    system frequency is reduced

    182)

    The least share of power is provided in India. by which of the following power plants?

    a

     Diesel power plants

    b

     Thermal power plants

    c

    Nuclear power plant

    d

    Hydro-electric power plants

    183)

    In method to find minimal cut set,If minimal path having components A and C, then cutset of that path are

    a

    A,C

    b

    A

    c

    C

    d

    none of the mentioned

    184)

    A generating station has 3 units of 50 MW with FOR=0.04. What is Probability for Capacity In of 50 MW and Capacity out 100

    a

    0.88474

    b

    0.11058

    c

    0.0046

    d

    0.00006

    185)

    The reduction in risk is
    achieved

    a

    simply by the presence of standby units in the system

    b

     by an operational decision to start them at the decision point of t = 0.

    c

    simply by the presence of standby units in the system and  by an operational decision to start them at the decision point of t = 0.

    d

    independent of stand by units and operational decision

    186)

    Which of the following is the essential requirement of peak load plant?

    a

    It should run at high speed

    b

    It should produce high voltage

    c

    It should be small in size

    d

    It should be capable of starting quickly


     




    187)

    Which one is considered as a weather independent load or base load?

    A:

    Domestic load

    B:

    Commercial load

    C:

    Agriculture load

    D:

    Industrial load

     

     

    188)

    Energy forecasts are used to determine _____________

    A:

    capacity of generation , transmission and distribution

    B:

    type of facilities required

    C:

    further development in load

    D:

    installing of new power plant

     

     

    189)

    What is the demand factor of residential load?

    A:

    70-95%

    B:

    90-95%

    C:

    75-85%

    D:

    85-95%

     

     

    190)

    Process in which the network specifications are determined in an effective and reliable manner is known as:

    A:

    Load forecasting

    B:

    Reactive power planning

    C:

    Transmission planning

    D:

    Generation planning

     

     

    191)

    Which one is not an objective of reactive power compensation?

    A:

    Power factor improvement

    B:

    Voltage support

    C:

    Harmonics elimination

    D:

    Frequency control

     

     

    192)

    Which one is a non-iterative load flow method?

    A:

    DC load flow method

    B:

    Gauss-Seidal load flow method

    C:

    Newton Raphson load flow method

    D:

    Decoupled load flow method

     

     

    193)

    What is the period of medium term planning?

    A:

    3-6 years

    B:

    3-8 years

    C:

    2-5 years

    D:

    3-5 years

     

     

    194)

    Which of the following statements is true about bath-tub curve?

    A:

    The early phase represents wearout failures.

    B:

    The middle phase represents wearout failures.

    C:

    The last phase represents random failures.

    D:

    The middle phase represents random failures.

     

     

    195)




    A:


    B:


    Ra RB RC


    C:


    D:




     

     

    196)

    Which of the following statement is true in Reliability studies?

    A:

    A tieset fails only if all its components fails

    B:

    A system fails if any of its tie set fails

    C:

    A cutset fails only if all its components fails

    D:

    A system fails only if  all of its minimal cut set fails

     

     

    197)

    "The probability of a device performing it's function adequately for the intended period of time under specified operating condition" is

    A:

    Efficiency

    B:

    Planning

    C:

    Reliability

    D:

    Forecasting

     

     

    198)

    A system consists of 10 identical components all of which must work for system success. What is the system reliability if reliability of each component is 0.88?

    A:

    0.999

    B:

    0.107

    C:

    0.598

    D:

    0.278

     

     

    199)

    Loss of Energy Expectation for a study period where Ei is the energy curtailment during an outage Oi  and pi  is the probability of the outage is given by:

    A:


     

    B:

    C:


    D:





     

     

    200)

    Probability of exactly r successes or (n-r) failures in n trials having probability of success p can be expressed using binomial distribution as:

    A:




     

    B:


     

    C:




    D:

     



     

     

     

    201)

    Which of the following statements is true about LOLE?

    A:

    The reciprocal of LOLE is a frequency parameter.

    B:

    LOLE in hrs/year  is obtained by multiplying the  days/year value by 24

    C:

    LOLE is the average number of time units that the load exceeds the available generating capacity.

    D:

    LOLE measures the expected energy that will not be supplied to the load.

     

     

    202)

    2-state Markov model is applicable for:

    A:

    Base load unit

    B:

    Rapid start unit

    C:

    Hot reserve unit

    D:

    Cold reserve unit

     

     

    203)

    Unit Availability is given as:

    A:

    µ/(µ+λ)      

    B:

    r/(m+r)

    C:

    r/T

    D:

    λ/(µ+λ)      

     

     

    204)

    What will the total power capacity in a system when three 50 MW unit and one 70 MW unit is operated at FOR of 0.02 and 0.03 respectively?

    A:

    170MW

    B:

    150MW

    C:

    220MW

    D:

    70MW

     

     

    205)

    If FOR is 0.02 of five 25 MW generating capacity, how much will be the operating if three units are in DOWN state?

    A:

    100 MW

    B:

    125 MW

    C:

    75 MW

    D:

    50 MW

     

     

    206)

    What is the probability when 50 MW unit is operating if generating system consist of three 25 MW units each having FOR of 0.04.

    A:

    0.1045

    B:

    0.11

    C:

    0.8847

    D:

    0.8404

     

     

    207)

    Which risk is associated with dispatch decision of operating reserve unit?

    A:

    Unit commitment risk

    B:

    Response risk

    C:

    Energy index risk

    D:

    Failing to start risk

     

     

    208)

    Outage replacement rate of an operating reserve unit with failure rate λ, repair rate µ and very small lead time T is given by:

    A:


     


    B:


     


    C:


     


    D:

     

     

    209)

    The probability that a unit fails and is not replaced during lead time is known as

    A:

    Operating Reserve