PSPR -

## Power System Planning And Reliability MCQ

1) Operations generated forecasts often not to do with

a. Inventory requirements

b. Resource needs

c. Time Requirements

d. Sales

2) Which of the following is not true for forecasting?

a. Forecasts are rarely perfect

b. The underlying casual system will remain same in the future

c. Forecast for group of items is accurate than individual item

d. Short range forecasts are less accurate than long range forecasts

3) Which of the following is not a forecasting technique?

a. Judgemental

b. Time series

c. Time horizon

d. Associative

4) In which of the following forecasting technique, subjective inputs obtained from various sources are analyzed?

a. Judgemental forecast

b. Time series forecast

c. Associative model

d. All of the above

5) In which of the following forecasting technique, data obtained from past experience is analyzed?

a. Judgemental forecast

b. Time series forecast

c. Associative model

d. All of the above

6) Delphi method is used for

a. Judgemental forecast

b. Time series forecast

c. Associative model

d. All of the above

7) Short term regular variations related to the calendar or time of day is known as

a. Trend

b. Seasonality

c. Cycles

d. Random Variations

8) The demand for period t-2 and t-1 is 10 and 12 cases respectively. As per naïve method, the demand for next period ‘t’ is

a. 10

b. 11

c. 12

d. 14

9) Calculate four periods moving average forecast from the last six periods

a. 40

b. 41

c. 42

d. 43

10) Calculate a weighted average forecast using a weight of .50 to the most recent period, .40 for the next recent period and .30 for the next period

a. 46.6

b. 47.6

c. 48.6

d. 49.6

11) A linear trend equation has the form

a. F = a - bt

b. F = a + bt

c. F = 2a - bt

d. F = 2a + bt

12) If the actual demand for a period is 100 units but forecast demand was 90 units. The forecast error is

a. -10

b. +10

c. -5

d. +5

13) The load forecasting is method to predict _______.

d. None of these

14) The load forecasting  methods give ___________ values.

a. Precise

b. Accurate

c. Not accurate

d. None of these

15) Depending upon chosen time period of study load forecasting maybe classified as _______

a. Short term

b. Medium term

c. Long term

d. All of these

16) Loads are classified into ______

e. All of these

17)  Factors affecting load forecasting are ______

a. Weather condition

b. Time factors

c. Special events

d. Class of customers

e. All of these

18) The load having less time period with larger variations is called __________

19) The load which occur for larger period as compared to the residential load is called_________

20) Which load having constant power demand____________.

22) ___________ is calculation of future load consumption based on various historical data and information available as per consumer pattern.

a. CUSUM

c. Markov method

d. Bath tub method

a. Generation with respect to load

b. Variation of load with respect to time

c. Generation with respect to time

d.  None of above

24) Load forecasting is nothing but to estimate

a. Deterministic part

b. Stochastic part

c. Both a and b

d.  None of the above

25) In Load forecasting, The present and lead time is represented by

a. σ,j

b.  Π,k

c. Χ, l

d.  None of the above

a.  Extrapolation

b.  Correlation

c.  Combination of a and b

d.  All of the above

27) The extrapolation method is based on the

a. Curve fitting to present data

b. Extrapolation of past data

c. Extrapolation of present data

d.Curve fitting to previous data available

28) Match standard analytical with its equation

i. Straight line        A.α+βσ+γσ23

ii. Parabolic            B.α+βσ+γσ2

iii. S-curve             C. α+βσ

iv. exponential       D.γΕσ

v. Gempertz           E. ln-1

a. i-A, ii-B, iii-C, iv-D, v-E

b.  i-C, ii-B, iii-A, iv-D, v-E

c.  i-A, ii-B, iii-D, iv-C, v-E

d.  i-D, ii-B, iii-A, iv-C, v-E

29) Which of the following method is generally adapted for curve fitting

a.  Weighted least square

b.  Extrapolation least square

c.  Least square

d.  None of above

30) Which of the following techniques is the basic for extrapolation?

a. Square extrapolation

b. Parabolic extrapolation

c. Exponential extrapolation

d. None of the above

31) The correlation technique relates system load to

a.  Various demographic factors

b.  Economic factors

c. Both a and b

d.  None of the above

32) What is the disadvantage of correlation methods?

a.  Required more past data for analysis

b.  Required more data space

c. Less accuracy

d. Load forecasting for demographic and economic factors is difficult

33) Which of the following is the simplest form of stochastic time series model?

b.  Estimation of periodic components

c. Time Estimation

d. Auto-regressive model

34) Kalman filtering algorithm is widely used for

a.  Short term or very short term load forecasting

d.  Very long term load forecasting

35) Limitation of Kalman and prediction techniques

a. Required large time to estimate

b.  Depends on availability of required state variable model of the load data which is not available at starting

c. Require more space to data storage

d.  All of above

36) Which of the following approaches is utilized to overcome the limitation of kalman and prediction method?

a.  Time series

c.  Innovation model

d.  None of the above

37) Which among the below mentioned types of redundancy exhibits maximum failure rate?

a. Cold standby

b. Warm or Tepid

c. Hot or Active

d. All of the above

38) Which among the following exhibits inversely proportional relationship with the reliability?

a. Production cost

b. Design and development cost

c. Maintenance and repair cost

d. All of the above

39) What is the failure cost of a product possessing reliability R=1?

a. Zero

b. Unity

c. Infinity

d. None of the above

40) What is /are the major purpose/s of using a bath tub curve?

a. To determine the capital maintenance in defense equipments.

b. To compute lifts in the distillation column

c. To decide the maintenance of equipment

d. All of the above

41) Which method prevents the operating condition that exceeds beyond 50% of the maximum rating in order to improve the system reliability?

a. Parts Improvement Method

b. Structural Redundancy

c. Effective & creative Design

d. Derating of components

42) Which type of availability deals with the probability of system operation and functioning at the requisite level in an ideal environment without any consideration of maintenance?

a. Inherent availability

b. Achieved availability

c. Operational availability

d. None of the above

43) What would be the composite failure rate of a system comprising one VLSI microprocessor with 6 SSI ICs  and 10 resistors corresponding to the data given below?

Assume a single board system

PCB 2000 FIT

SSIC 70 FIT

R  20 FIT

VLSI microprocessor 600 FIT

a. 1250 FIT

b. 2400 FIT

c. 3220 FIT

d. 4520 FIT

44) What would happen, if an equipment possesses reliability and maintainability to the maximum extent in accordance to MTTR?

a. Failure rate is higher & downtime is longer

b. Failure rate is lower & downtime is longer

c. Failure rate is higher & downtime is shorter

d. Failure rate is lower & downtime is shorter

45) On which factors does the down-time of an equipment at the maintainability phase, depends

a. Design

b. Installation

c. Both a & b

d. None of the above

46) How is the reliability of a product specified?

a. Always less than 1

b. Always greater than 1

c. Always equal to 1

d. None of the above

47) Which type of maintenance is associated or concerned with an elimination of failures during the operational level of an equipment?

a. Preventive

b. Predictive

c. Breakdown

d. Capital

48) Which among the below mentioned parameters is/are associated with the quality of a device

a. Time & environmental conditions

b. Numerical value

c. Manufacturing of unit

d. All of the above

49) According to exponential law of reliability, the relationship between the reliability and the system failure due to consistency in occurrence of failure rate, can be generally expressed as _________

a. R = λt

b. R = -λt

c. R = e λt

d. R = e- λt

50) Which type of failures occur due to some major reason by terminating the functioning level for a long duration of time?

a. Initial failures

b. Early failures

c. Wear out failures

d. Catastrophic failures

51) Which stage of life-cycle associated with an electronic instrument plays a vital role in establishing a target figure for reliability in terms of specifications?

a. Design

b. Production

c. Storage & Transport

d. Operation

52. The Bathtub curve indicates failure probability, Which stage is NOT normally associated with the bathtub curve?_________

a. Normal-life where few failures occur

b. Wear-out where failure increases due to age

c. Infant-mortality where failures occur early

d. Pulling the plug where production is halted due to unacceptable level of failures

53. Failure occurs due to defective parts during the_________.

a. Wear out stage

b. Normal life stage

c. Early life stage

54. What refers to wear out failure_________.

a. Increasing failure rate

b. Decreasing failure rate

c. Depends upon type of the experiment

d. Depends upon the subject

55. What is /are the major purpose/s of using a bath tub curve?

a. To determine the capital maintenance in defense equipments

b. To compute lifts in the distillation column

c. To decide the maintenance of equipment

d. All of the above

56. What is the failure cost of a product possessing reliability R=1?

a. Zero

b. Unity

c. Infinity

d. None of the above

57Which among the following exhibits inversely proportional relationship with the reliability?

a. Production cost

b. Design and development cost

c. Maintenance and repair cost

d. All of the above

58. Which among the below mentioned types of redundancy exhibits maximum failure rate?

a. Cold standby

b. Warm or Tepid

c. Hot or Active

d. All of the above

59. Which of the following is not a phase of  bath tub curve of hardware reliability?

a. Useful life

b. wear out

c. Time

d. Burn-in

60. What is bath tub curve stands for?

a. maintenance schedule

b. failure rate

c. vibration chart

d. viscosity chart

61. Which one of the following relationships is incorrect?

ANS: f(t) = -dF(t)/ dt

62. Which of the following is not considered a reliability design method________.

a. Parts selection

b. Derating

c. Accessibility

d. Choice of technology

63. The probability density function of a Markov process is___________.

a. p(x1,x2,x3.......xn) = p(x1)p(x2/x1)p(x3/x2).......p(xn/xn-1)

b. p(x1,x2,x3.......xn) = p(x1)p(x1/x2)p(x2/x3).......p(xn-1/xn)

c. p(x1,x2,x3......xn) = p(x1)p(x2)p(x3).......p(xn)

d. p(x1,x2,x3......xn) = p(x1)p(x2 *x1)p(x3*x2)........p(xn*xn-1)

64. Markov analysis is a technique that deals with the probabilities of future occurrences by__________.

a. Using Bayes' theorem

b. Analyzing presently known probabilities

c. Time series forecasting

d. The maximal flow technique

65. How is reliability and failure intensity related to each other?

a. Direct relation

b. Inverse relation

c. No relation

d. None of the mentioned

66. What is MTTF ?

a. Maximum time to failure

b. Mean time to failure

c. Minimum time to failure

d. None of the mentioned

67. What is MTTR  ?

a.  Mean Time To Restore

b.  Mean Time To Repair

c.  Mean Time To Recovery

d.  Mean Time to Restoration

68. Measure of reliability is given by ______ .

a. Mean Time between success

b. Mean reliable

c. Mean Time between failure (MTBF)

d. MTTR

69. Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) is the time needed to repair a failed equipment/component.

a. True

b. False

c. Can't say

d. None

70. Which one of the below is measured by MTBF?

a. Tolerance

b. Life time

c. Reliability

d. Quality

71. What is the area under a conditional Cumulative density function ?

a. 0

b. Infinity

c. 1

d. Changes with CDF

72. Reliability is a measure of the result of the quality of the product over ________.

a. the short run

b. the long run

c. the medium run

d. the moderate run

73. What is the failure cost of a product possessing reliability R=1?

a. Zero

b. Unity

c. Infinity

d. None of the above

74. What is MTTF ?

a. Maximum time to failure

b. Mean time to failure

c. Minimum time to failure

d. None of the mentioned

75. If two systems are connected in series with reliabilities are 1 and 0.9 then total reliability_______.

a. 0.91

b. 1.9

c. 0.9

d. 0.95

Explanation :

SERIES System :

When components are in series and each component has a reliability RIf one component fails, the system fails.

 Series system reliability

1. The overall reliability of a series system shown above is :

2. R AB = R1 x R2 x R3

3. If R1 = R2 = R3 = 0.95

4. RAB = R1 x R2 x R3 = 0.95 x 0.95 x 0.95 = 0.86

5. R total is always < than R1 or R2 or R3

76. Which one of the below is measured by MTBF_______.

a. Tolerance

b. Life time

c. Reliability

d. Quality

77. What are the units of LOLE________.

a. week/days

b. days/year

c. year/week

d. week/year

78. The Bathtub curve indicates failure probability, Which stage is NOT normally associated with the bathtub curve?

a. Normal-life where few failures occur

b. Wear-out where failure increases due to age

c. Infant-mortality where failures occur early

d. Pulling the plug where production is halted due to unacceptable level of failures

79. What is the area under a conditional Cumulative density function ?

a. 0

b. Infinity

c. 1

d. Changes with CDF

80. Markov analysis is a technique that deals with the probabilities of future occurrences by__________.

a. Using Bayes' theorem

b. Analyzing presently known probabilities

c. Time series forecasting

d. The maximal flow technique

81. Unreliability of the system represents with_______.

a. p

b. q

c. r

d. s

82. A transmission and distribution engineer needed to design the sub transmission substation. The tapping component needed is______.

a. Feeder

b. Distributor

c. Transmitter

d. Tap-changing transformer

83. Electric power is transferred from one location to another location by________.

b. Underground line

c. Both a and b

d. None of above

84. Value of A parameter of transmission line______.

a. Increases with increase in length of line

b. Decreases with increase in line length

c. Independent of line length

d. None of the above

85. The advantage of neutral earthing is _______.

a. Freedom from persistent arcing grounds

b. Over voltages due to lightning can be discharged to earth

c. Simplified design earth fault protection

d. All of the above

86. Grounding transformer is used where neutral_____ available.

a. Is

b. Is not

c. Any of above

d. None of above

87)

According to  Nature of load is classified as

a

b

c

d

88)

Load Factor of power station is generally

a

equal to unity

b

Less than unity

c

More than unity

d

Equal to zero diversity factor is always

89)

Which of the following is the essential requirement of peak load plant ?

a

It should run at high speed

b

It should produce high voltage

c

It should be small in size

d

It should be capable of starting quickly

90)

Very Short term foresacting is used for ?

a

Improvement of transmission and distribution systems

b

Allocation of spinning reserve

c

Development of small generation schemes

d

Fuel Requirement

91)

what is time period of short term forecasting?

a

one day to one week

b

one day to two weeks

c

one day to 4 weeks

d

one day to 6 weeks

92)

What is need of load forcasting ?

a

To understand  Energy Dificiency

b

To undetsand consumer intrest

c

To calculate load on power plant

d

93)

Relation between the load and temperature is  ?

a

Non-linear

b

Linear

c

Regressive

d

Uniform

94)

Which of the following load is occurs for short period ?

a

b

c

d

95)

To find weather load model we need ______

a

Temprature

b

Historial Data

c

Time Period

d

Weather data

96)

Which of the following parameter does not come under random factor ?

a

School Hoilidays

b

Rainy Seasons

c

Weather

d

Temperature

97)

Which of following factor affects capacity of substation ?

a

Economic growth

b

c

Tariff

d

Season

98)

Which of the following method used in 2020 for  load forecasting ?

a

Univariate Model

b

c

Expert system Method

d

Artificial Neutral network Model

99)

If r = 1 , then its called ________

a

Perfect linear Correlation

b

Perfect Negative  Correlation

c

Perfect  Non-linear Correlation

d

No  Correlation

100)

If  0 < r <1 , then its called ________

a

Perfect  Correlation

b

Negative  Correlation

c

Non-linear Correlation

d

Positive   Correlation

101)

Which of the following method is used for Peak Load Forecasting ?

a

Extrapolation Method

b

Trend Projection Method

c

Expert system Method

d

Artificial Neutral Network Model Method

102)

Average power is also called?

a

apparent power

b

reactive power

c

true power

d

instantaneous power

103)

The power factor=?

a

sinθ

b

cosθ

c

tanθ

d

cotθ

104)

The term lagging power factor is used in which circuits?

a

RLC

b

RC

c

RL

d

LC

105)

The change in reactive power Q produces large effect on receiving end voltage because

a

The voltage drop associated with this change is in phase with reference voltage

b

The voltage drop associated with this change is in quadrature with reference voltage

c

The voltage drop associated with this change has no relation with reference voltage

d

The voltage drop associated with this change is in phase with reference Current

106)

a

Long term planning

b

short term planning

c

outage term planning

d

medium term planning

107)

short fall of existing system is located in

a

Long term planning

b

short term planning

c

outage term planning

d

medium term planning

108)

planning for co-generation for reactive power support is made in

a

Long term planning

b

short term planning

c

outage term planning

d

medium term planning

109)

development of fuel contracts is made in

a

Long term planning

b

short term planning

c

outage term planning

d

medium term planning

110)

improvement of power factor can be made with the help of

a

average power planning

b

reactive power planning

c

real power planning

d

apparent power planning

111)

increase in power transfer capabilities of existing network can carried out with the help of

a

average power planning

b

reactive power planning

c

real power planning

d

apparent power planning

112)

Load flow studies are carried out for

a

fault calcualation

b

stabiloty studies

c

system planning

d

frequency control

113)

Daily load curve is diveded into how many parts

a

1

b

2

c

3

d

4

114)

If ‘X’ is a random variable, taking values ‘x’, probability of success and failure being ‘p’ and ‘q’ respectively and ‘n’ trials being conducted, then what is the probability that ‘X’ takes values ‘x’? Use Binomial Distribution

a

P(X = x) = nCx px qx

b

P(X = x) = nCx px q(n-x)

c

P(X = x) = xCn qx p(n-x)

d

P(x = x) = xCn pn qx

115)

Reliability,R(t) is generally a decreasing function between the limits….

a

of 1 and 0.5

b

of 0 and 0.5

c

of 0.5 and 1

d

of 1 and 0

116)

Weibull distribution expression λ(t) = K t β-1        for     t> 0, If β >1 represents

a

failure rate decreases  with time- wear out stage

b

failure rate increases with time- wear out stage

c

failure rate constant -  useful life period

d

failure rate decreases with time- debugging region

117)

Let Ns(t)= number surviving at time t and Nf(t)= number failed at time t from total No components,then the probability of failure is define as

a

1-Ns(t)/No

b

Nf(t)/No

c

Ns(t)/No

d

1- (Nf(t)/No)

118)

probability density function is define as

a

dQ(t)/dt

b

-dQ(t)/dt

c

dR(t)/dt

d

-dR(t)/dt

119)

A parallel system has 10 identical components. If the overall system reliability must be at least 0.99, how poor can these components be?

a

0.134

b

0.234

c

0.396

d

0.652

120)

Weibull distribution expression λ(t) = K t β-1     for     t> 0, for wear out stage value of  β is

a

β >1

b

β =1

c

0< β <1

d

β <1

121)

Weibull distribution expression λ(t) = K t β-1     for     t> 0, for useful life period value of  β is

a

β >1

b

β =1

c

0< β <1

d

β <1

122)

Weibull distribution expression λ(t) = K t β-1     for     t> 0, for time- debugging region value of  β is

a

β >1

b

β =1

c

0< β <1

d

β <1

123)

If x is a continuous random variable with a probability density function f(x). The epected value E(x) is given by

b

c

d

124)

The system consisting a single component having failure rate 1X10-6 f/hr, evaluate the probability of surviving for a period og 5000hr

a

0.8899

b

0.9981

c

0.995

d

0.9985

125)

The system is forming 4 tieset ,the system probability is given by the equation

a

Rs = P(T1)UP(T2)UP(T3)UP(T4)

b

Rs = P(T1UT2UT3UT4)

c

Rs = P(T1UT2)UP(T3UT4)

d

Rs = P(T1UT2UT3)UP(T4)

126)

The system is forming 4 cutset ,the system unrelaibility is given by the equation

a

Qs = P(C1UC2UC3UC4)

b

Qs = P(C1)UP(C2)UP(C3)Up(C4)

c

Qs = P(C1UC2)UP(C3UC4)

d

Qs = P(C1UC2UC3)UPC4)

127)

Unit of LOLE is

a

days/year

b

year/days

c

days

d

years

128)

Inversion of LOLE is often misinterpreted as

a

Duration Index

b

Time Index

c

Generation Index

d

Frequency Index

129)

Frequency and Duration Method

a

Requires Less Data than Basic Methods

b

Requires Additional Data than Basic Methods

c

Requires same data as Basic Methods

d

Requires no data

130)

The LOLE method for calculation uses steady state availability and unavailability for which of the following model

a

Markov Model

b

Two state model

c

Weather Model

d

131)

Which of the following is not a proper classification based on time scale for Generaation Planning

a

b

c

d

132)

Which of the following is not a factor affecting monthly planning

a

Scheduling of generator unit planned outages

b

Scheduling of transmission unit planned outages

c

Two Year System Operation

d

Transient Security Assesment

133)

Which of the following is not a factor affecting  yearly planning

a

Two Year System Operation

b

Five Year System Operation

c

Grid System Performance Report

d

Scheduling of unit commitment

134)

In a four state model two state model is represented by

a

states 0 and 1

b

states 1 and 2

c

states 2 and 3

d

states 0 and 3

135)

In a four state mode failure to start condition is represented bythe transition rate

a

states 0 to 1

b

states 1 to 2

c

states 2 to 3

d

states 0 to 3

136)

Overall probability that load demand will not met is called

a

LOLP

b

LOLE

c

LOEE

d

LOEP

137)

Formula for EIR=

a

1-LOLP

b

1-LOEE

c

1-LOEP

d

1-LOLE

138)

Study Period for LOLE study in days is

a

355

b

360

c

365

d

370

139)

The LOLE is 0.25104 days for the 20-day period. If the year is assumed to be composed of a series of such periods, the annual LOLE in days/year is

a

4.55

b

4.56

c

4.57

d

4.58

140)

A single repairable generating unit capacity =20 MW. Availability =0.98, mean time to repair r=2.010816 days. Total Operating Period is

a

100 days

b

101 days

c

102 days

d

103 days

141)

After commisioning new unit the Total System Capacity

a

Stops

b

Decreses

c

Increases

d

Remains Same

142)

If summation of LOLP =0.40652 then LOLE for 100% time represented by 365 days is

a

1.38

b

1.48

c

1.58

d

1.68

143)

For Modified PJM method 1) it extends the basic concepts 2) allows the inclusion of rapid start units and other additional generating plant having different individual lead times.

a

1 is correct

b

2 is correct

c

1 is correct but 2 is incorrect

d

2 is correct 1 is incorrect

144)

Is there any conceptual limit to the number of intervals which can be used in practice ?

a

Yes limit is there

b

Yes limit is there but not on stand by modes

c

No limit but each unit on standby mode cannot be associated with its own lead time.

d

No limit and each unit on standby mode can be associated with its own lead time.

145)

a

wrong calculations

b

excessive usage of hardware

c

excessive computation

d

More protective units

146)

group for rapid start and hot reserve
units

a

typically may be 25 minutes and 5 hour  respectively

b

typically may be 5 hour  and 25 minutes respectively

c

typically may be 1 hour  and 10 minutes respectively

d

typically may be 10 minutes and 1 hour  respectively

147)

The risk is reduced most significantly by the addition of the gas turbines and these have a greater effect than the hot reserve units.

a

Because gas turbines can be started more quickly comparatively

b

Because these units are able to affect the risk level over a much longer time period than the hot reserve units.

c

Because gas turbines  have less stand by losses

d

Because gas turbines are capable of using a range of liquid and gaseous fuels including synthetic fuels.

148)

Unit which fails during
operation must be removed immediately from service.

a

Usually an acceptable
concept in planning studies but becomes less acceptable in operational reserve
evaluation.

b

Usually acceptable
concept in planning studies and operational reserve
evaluation.

c

Not acceptable in planning studies but acceptable in operational reserve
evaluation.

d

Not acceptable in both  planning studies and operational reserve
evaluation.

149)

The removal of the unit for repair can be delayed or postponed for up to ……. Hour/s or more.

a

Half

b

1

c

5

d

24

150)

Pump storage systems generally have…………...  probability of failing to start.

a

very reasonable

b

moderately high

c

very
high

d

very
low

151)

If all unit failures could be postponed ,

a

capacity outages would
not contribute to the operational risk and spinning reserve would only be required
to compensate for load forecast uncertainties.

b

capacity outages would
contribute to the operational risk and also spinning reserve would be required
to compensate for load forecast uncertainties.

c

Neither capacity outages would
contribute to the operational risk nor spinning reserve would  be required
to compensate for load forecast uncertainties.

d

This is practically not possible

152)

Rapid start units such as gas
turbines and pumped storage systems

a

can respond extremely quickly from standstill , decrease the response risk,  increase the response magnitude

b

can respond extremely quickly from standstill but increase the response risk

c

can respond extremely quickly from
standstill but decrease the response magnitude

d

can respond not very quickly from standstill , decrease the response risk,  increase the response magnitude

153)

What is full form of MORR?

a

Modified outage replacement rate

b

Maryland Opioid Recovery Response

c

Movement Overspeed Resistance Reaction

d

154)

1) Hydro units are very useful as spinning reserve units                         2) Hydro units are cheaper to operate than thermai units

a

1 is correct

b

2 is correct

c

Both 1 & 2 are correct

d

2 is correct 1 is incorrect

155)

1)the risk decreases as the number of failures which can be postponed increases. 2) less spinning reserve needs to be carried in order to achieve a given level of risk.

a

1 and 2 are true and related

b

1 and 2 are true but not related

c

1 and 2 are false and not related

d

1 is true but 2 is false

156)

The short response time of
spinning reserve units represents

a

the amount of time a storage technology can maintain its output.

b

the period in which the units must respond in order
to eliminate the need to take other emergency measures such as disconnecting load.

c

a change in the power consumption of an electric utility customer to better match the demand for power with the supply.

d

the period in which sufficient capacity
must respond in order to protect system frequency and tie-line regulation.

157)

The longer response time represents

a

the period in which sufficient capacity
must respond in order to protect system frequency and tie-line regulation.

b

c

with the capability to absorb and supply electrical energy for long periods of time

d

the period in which the units must respond in order
to eliminate the need to take other emergency measures such as disconnecting load.

158)

Hydro units can usually respond to changes ………………….. than conventional thermal units.

a

much more rapidly

b

slowly

c

at same rate as

d

invalid comparison

159)

the response rate may vary from about ………….of full capacity per minute for hydro-electric plant to only …………...of full capacity per minute for some types of thermal
plant.

a

30%, 1%

b

90%, 50%

c

50%, 90%

d

1%,30%

160)

in practice, units usually have a  ……………...response rate.

a

linear

b

non-linear

c

differential

d

integral

161)

Types of rapid start units such as gas turbines can usually reach full output within ……….minutes from standstill.

a

60

b

5

c

120

d

1

162)

1) The essence of allocating spinning reserve between units is  to decide which of the committed units should be dispatched and which should be held as reserve. These decisions can be assisted by evaluating the probability of achieving a certain response or regulating margin within the required response time. This assessment is known as

a

Risk Impact Assessment

b

Plan Risk Response

c

Response Risk Evaluation

d

Risk Impact Mitigation

163)

A transmission and distribution engineer needed to design the sub transmission substation. The tapping component needed is

a

Feeder

b

Distributor

c

Transmitter

d

Tap-changing transformer

164)

Which of these systems uses the 3 phase 4 wire system?

a

Primary distribution

b

Secondary distribution

c

Primary transmission

d

Secondary transmission

165)

Which type of system is generally adopted for the generation and transmission of electrical power?

a

3 phase 4 wire

b

2 phase 3 wire

c

3 phase 3 wire

d

2 phase 4 wire

166)

Which is an example of non-conventional energy souces?

a

coal

b

petroleum

c

gas

d

solar

167)

Out of the following which one is not a unconventional source of energy ?

a

Tidal power

b

Geothermal energy

c

Nuclear energy

d

Wind power.

168)

Name the cable or conductor which connects the distributor to the consumer terminals.

a

Service Mains

b

Distributor

c

Feeders

d

Both feeder and distributor

169)

The voltage of the single-phase supply to residential consumers is

a

110 V

b

230 V

c

440 V

d

320 V

170)

In transmission lines, the cross-arms are made of

a

Steel

b

Wood

c

R.C.C

d

Either Steel or Wood

171)

LOLE stands for

a

Loss of Line Expectation

b

Line of Loss Energy

c

d

172)

LOEE stands for

a

Loss of Energy Expectation

b

Loss of Expectation Energy

c

d

Loss of Electrical Energy

173)

The generating voltage and frequency in India is about?

a

11 kV and 60 Hz

b

11 kV and 50 Hz

c

220 kV and 60 Hz

d

220 kV and 50 Hz

174)

What is the highest possible transmission voltage in India?

a

675 kV

b

765 kV

c

132 kV

d

400 kV

175)

Which of the following materials are not used for the transmission and distribution of electrical power?

a

Copper

b

Aluminum

c

Tungsten

d

Steel

176)

The distribution constant of the transmission line is

a

Resistance

b

Inductance

c

Capacitance

d

Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance, Conductance

177)

Transformer connection at the sending end of a transmission line is usually

a

Star-delta

b

Delta-delta

c

Delta-star

d

Star-star

178)

In short overhead transmission line (upto 80 km), we may neglect

a

Series resistance

b

Shunt conductance

c

Shunt capacitance

d

Both shunt conductance and capacitance

179)

The EHV system in one operating beyond

a

11 kV

b

132 kV

c

200 kV

d

400 kV

180)

__________ is invariably used as base load plant.

a

Diesel engine plant

b

Nuclear power plant

c

Gas turbine plant

d

Pumped storage plant

181)

a

system power factor is changed

b

c

system voltage is reduced

d

system frequency is reduced

182)

The least share of power is provided in India. by which of the following power plants?

a

Diesel power plants

b

Thermal power plants

c

Nuclear power plant

d

Hydro-electric power plants

183)

In method to find minimal cut set,If minimal path having components A and C, then cutset of that path are

a

A,C

b

A

c

C

d

none of the mentioned

184)

A generating station has 3 units of 50 MW with FOR=0.04. What is Probability for Capacity In of 50 MW and Capacity out 100

a

0.88474

b

0.11058

c

0.0046

d

0.00006

185)

The reduction in risk is
achieved

a

simply by the presence of standby units in the system

b

by an operational decision to start them at the decision point of t = 0.

c

simply by the presence of standby units in the system and  by an operational decision to start them at the decision point of t = 0.

d

independent of stand by units and operational decision

186)

Which of the following is the essential requirement of peak load plant?

a

It should run at high speed

b

It should produce high voltage

c

It should be small in size

d

It should be capable of starting quickly

187)

Which one is considered as a weather independent load or base load?

A:

B:

C:

D:

188)

Energy forecasts are used to determine _____________

A:

capacity of generation , transmission and distribution

B:

type of facilities required

C:

D:

installing of new power plant

189)

What is the demand factor of residential load?

A:

70-95%

B:

90-95%

C:

75-85%

D:

85-95%

190)

Process in which the network specifications are determined in an effective and reliable manner is known as:

A:

B:

Reactive power planning

C:

Transmission planning

D:

Generation planning

191)

Which one is not an objective of reactive power compensation?

A:

Power factor improvement

B:

Voltage support

C:

Harmonics elimination

D:

Frequency control

192)

Which one is a non-iterative load flow method?

A:

B:

C:

D:

193)

What is the period of medium term planning?

A:

3-6 years

B:

3-8 years

C:

2-5 years

D:

3-5 years

194)

Which of the following statements is true about bath-tub curve?

A:

The early phase represents wearout failures.

B:

The middle phase represents wearout failures.

C:

The last phase represents random failures.

D:

The middle phase represents random failures.

195)

A:

B:

Ra RB RC

C:

D:

196)

Which of the following statement is true in Reliability studies?

A:

A tieset fails only if all its components fails

B:

A system fails if any of its tie set fails

C:

A cutset fails only if all its components fails

D:

A system fails only if  all of its minimal cut set fails

197)

"The probability of a device performing it's function adequately for the intended period of time under specified operating condition" is

A:

Efficiency

B:

Planning

C:

Reliability

D:

Forecasting

198)

A system consists of 10 identical components all of which must work for system success. What is the system reliability if reliability of each component is 0.88?

A:

0.999

B:

0.107

C:

0.598

D:

0.278

199)

Loss of Energy Expectation for a study period where Ei is the energy curtailment during an outage Oi  and pi  is the probability of the outage is given by:

A:

B:

C:

D:

200)

Probability of exactly r successes or (n-r) failures in n trials having probability of success p can be expressed using binomial distribution as:

A:

B:

C:

D:

201)

Which of the following statements is true about LOLE?

A:

The reciprocal of LOLE is a frequency parameter.

B:

LOLE in hrs/year  is obtained by multiplying the  days/year value by 24

C:

LOLE is the average number of time units that the load exceeds the available generating capacity.

D:

LOLE measures the expected energy that will not be supplied to the load.

202)

2-state Markov model is applicable for:

A:

B:

Rapid start unit

C:

Hot reserve unit

D:

Cold reserve unit

203)

Unit Availability is given as:

A:

µ/(µ+λ)

B:

r/(m+r)

C:

r/T

D:

λ/(µ+λ)

204)

What will the total power capacity in a system when three 50 MW unit and one 70 MW unit is operated at FOR of 0.02 and 0.03 respectively?

A:

170MW

B:

150MW

C:

220MW

D:

70MW

205)

If FOR is 0.02 of five 25 MW generating capacity, how much will be the operating if three units are in DOWN state?

A:

100 MW

B:

125 MW

C:

75 MW

D:

50 MW

206)

What is the probability when 50 MW unit is operating if generating system consist of three 25 MW units each having FOR of 0.04.

A:

0.1045

B:

0.11

C:

0.8847

D:

0.8404

207)

Which risk is associated with dispatch decision of operating reserve unit?

A:

Unit commitment risk

B:

Response risk

C:

Energy index risk

D:

Failing to start risk

208)

Outage replacement rate of an operating reserve unit with failure rate λ, repair rate µ and very small lead time T is given by:

A:

B:

C:

D: